and Makanju, A. Industry is now developing high-oleic soybean oil varieties that possess improved oxidative stability over normal soybean oil. separated as 84.6 and 85.9%, respectively. The castor oil cake is then crushed and sent to solvent extraction section. The best antioxidant and chelator combination was tert-butylhydroquinone at 1.28% and citric acid at 0.02%. Castor was one of the oldest cultivated crops before being abandoned in many countries in the total oil composition (Beruk et al., 2018; Panhwar et al., 2016; Yusuf et al., 2015). outline various common pests, diseases and their treatments (iv) discuss detailed ecology and (v) highlight various local various plots such as single effect, interaction plot, contour plot and 3D surface plot. 74, 75 Castor oil can be extracted from castor beans by either mechanical pressing, solvent extraction, or a combination of pressing and extraction. margaric and margoleic acids, total trans isomers of linoleic, linolenic and palmitic/linoleic were determined to be the best descriptive components for the oil samples. Typescript (photocopy). One alternative to growing special varieties to improve the oxidative stability of oil is to concentrate oleic acid. h��Y�o�6�W�1A��oRC �f5�X�K� �DK�9v`�����")J�q��q�t��ݏw���P"�&9�5�q OK�� ӒHE g�W�H�8�(���$FA�����&LQ� ��qx��[�/9��R �r4jd�GC�֠G"�E�$��%Z��8���HChC�F��k� �8 Jή^��>��!|�w��PdG��M1�.=8����U�:dg�uu�u�osA�ڗ� The reaction occurred at the reaction temperature of 178 °C for an hour. Fatty Acids from Castor, Coriander and Meadowfoam Oils. Samples of castor seeds were collected from Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia while sample of wet microalgal biomass was obtained from wastewater stabilization ponds using a 60µm filter screen. The castor oil contains around 90% of the fatty acid and is commercially valued for ricinoleic acid, * Extraction and purification of castor oil from wild Ricinus communis Linn. The detailed fatt, for the oil is given in Table 2, while Table 3 presents the SFA, MUFA and PUFA contents (%, 1401 A.K. The only alternative source for organic carbon(liquid fuels, polymers, and chemicals) is biomass. establishment as a native plant. Inventors: Albert, Gathman . To prove whether glycerol can be one of the hydrogen donors like limonene that is commonly used, the research started by using pure glycerol as the hydrogen donor and as a control to determine the protocol. The primary factor limiting the use of vegetable oils in these applications is an increase in viscosity caused by oxidation. The composition of the oleate-rich fraction was 0% palmitate, 0% stearate, 63.8% oleate, 22% linoleate and 3% linolenate. The renewable energy sources are either naturally available in excess or can be replenished. The oil is critical to many industrial applications, ��_ǣ��V������Og���c]ԦIJ�A5�ׇ��qAh6���߉��^C�E�g�C5�e�Ô�p��5D����V;;� ��c:�>a��/J�y�12��d"�̭���=ǀ�ۺ��zsnF�� 7wQ�#��\OQ2���:Z��M?MJ*`fn�Ơ�=U4u��ȹw�x�3ԵA���)hyŇ�xT��)w��A-���o�8=~z:�>{g���dKY�!�mYmC\j؝�ɼ�ߧ�l^ߍf!�S�٠�����7�=��n���%w.~���ۄ�]�ͨ�k�i��� � Z)�"�5�����9�=�z)q���N�\W��ך�i�p�)�E��%,%rD����0`�ڮN�2W���W�p�`��)h����wgv��ηu[��m��nF��A{�K���+��]o4�q�'q�W$I��+ ks�MH����OYY��w����(:"a~B�r�!a �o&�v)u|g �d���y��Ͽ�6A7�H2� Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Boyle, M.A. Castor seed whether harvested from commercial farms or the wild must be hulled. The physico-chemical analysis of the oil showed viscosity of 0.413 cP @ 30 0 C, pH of 5.50, saponification value of 184.6 mg KOH g-1 , iodine value of 87.94gI 2 100g-1 , acid value of 5.92 mg KOH g-1 , specific gravity of 0.968 g/cm 3 , refractive index of 1.477 @ 27.4 0 C, free fatty acid of 2.98% and peroxide value of 157.82 Meq/kg. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied, Bello, E.I. The fatty acid profile of castor has low amount of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and this enhance its stability, ... Ethiopia is home to diverse varieties of both edible and non-edible oil plants that have an ample potential for biodiesel production. In-situ polymerization was used in the production of polyurethane foam using the extracted oil as polyol. The fatty acid composition of the biodiesel from mixed oil was analyzed using Gas chromatograph. Fatty acid composition was also determined to ascertain the extent of dehydration due to the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 36.9%) and non conjugated linoleic acid (NCLA, 46.8%). � ��ʆ_�T��m9��Vy8�L����lp||4�7 Z��b�`�o8h9�������va��r^͞vo�_�]��a\�C3ډә_����xp2,*P����^��] �����e������t:������D�O��- UW��tt_��v.����n�-�,��n��ه�_�y�" Granding . Structure for ricinoleic acid The presence of a hydroxyl group on C-12 of ricinoleic acid makes castor oil unusually polar, thus promoting hydrogen bonding. This can be accomplished by the formation of urea complexes. To fractionate soybean oil, 10g of soybean oil methyl esters were combined with urea, methanol and saturated methanol in a series of crystallizations. Alternaria blight, powdery mildew, charcoal root rot and vascular wilt are major diseases that cause substantial yield losses under high temperatures and drought conditions. Average oil content for all castor seed varieties is about 46-55% oil by weight (Ogunniyi, 2006) - actual yield depending on particular seed variety, geographical origin/climatic conditions, and on the oil extraction … Its boiling point is 313 °C (595 °F) and its density is 0.961 g/cm 3. of years, demand for castor oil has kept increasing in the international market, assured by more than 700 uses, ranging Castor is a hardy crop, easy to establish on the field, h�212T0P���w�/�+Q0���L)�612�)�I0i1�P� *V?�� U? GCMS spectra show the percentage composition of ricinoleic, linoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic, and nonanoic acid, as 78.67, 9.62, 6.65, 1.53, 2.19, and 0.08, respectively. The highest levels of predicted grouping for the two harvest years were found in 1403 A.K. Extracted oil is filtered, and the material removed from the oil is fed back into the stream along with fresh material. International Journal of Science, Environme, and Technology, Vol. Oil extraction is usually achieved by mechanical expression or solvent extraction, or both. Conjugation of the double bond in the bromo-castor oil has been checked by UV absorbance at 233 and 268 nm. He gas was used as a sample carrier gas at flow rate of 1.21 mL/min, ... Other remaining fatty acids have been listed in Table 1. (DA). The melting point of the hydrogenated castor oil is 65 °C and the melting point of castor oil is − 7 °C. Castor plant’s origin is obscured by its wide dissemination in ancient times, and the ease and rapidity of its US3060165A US3060165DA US3060165A US 3060165 A US3060165 A US 3060165A US 3060165D A US3060165D A US 3060165DA US 3060165 A US3060165 A US 3060165A Authority US United States Prior art keywords ricin toxic solution precipitation extraction Prior art date 1962-10-23 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Hexane (C. 6. 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