On balance, however, Indira Gandhi seems to have done more harm than good during her two stints as the prime minister of India. When Indira was assassinated, Rajiv Gandhi succeeded her as prime minister and served until 1989. Her family fought for India’s independence from Britain. (Feroz Gandhi was no relation to Mohandas Gandhi.). He served as the Indian diplomat and ambassador to the United States and as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom. During the state of emergency, Indira initiated a series of authoritarian changes. Among those killed were Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and the other militants. The child was named Indira Priyadarshini Nehru. Trouble also flared in the ever-volatile Jammu and Kashmir region in the north. How are Indira Gandhi and Ghandi related? He … Sanjay Gandhi’s death in an airplane crash in June 1980 eliminated Indira’s chosen successor from the political leadership of India. Her father was Jawaharlal Nehru, who would go on to become the first prime minister of India following its independence from Britain; her mother, Kamala Nehru, was just 18 years old when the baby arrived. She established closer relations with the He was the chairman of the organising committee. Indira Gandhi's Early Life . Once she stepped out of the gates, hundreds of supporters cheered, “Long live Indira Gandhi,” to the beat of drums and tambourines along with distribution of arrays of sweets. Indira Nehru Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 and would be the only child of Jawaharlal and Kamala Nehru. The collateral damage included the death of many pilgrims, as well as damage to the Akal Takht. He was first elected to the Lok Sabha in 1980. Indira returned home to take care of him. After Indira Gandhi (given the codename ‘Vano’ by Mitrokhin) became Prime Minister, the KGB managed to infiltrate deeper into the Indian government. She became the first woman Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was India's third prime minister, serving from 1966 until 1984, when her life ended in assassination. After Sanjay’s death, Indira groomed her other son, Rajiv, for the leadership of her party. She made a fatal choice - to send in the Indian Army against the Sikh militants in the Golden Temple. Indira Gandhi's elder son Rajiv Gandhi married Sonia Gandhi. Fiscal problems associated with the war with Pakistan in 1965, along with a drought-induced food crisis that spawned famines, had plunged India into the sharpest recession since independence. Her father was often away and she was brought up by her mother who was mostly bed-ridden due to her illn… On October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her bodyguards in retaliation for her authorization for using force on Sikh Separatists who had occupied the Golden Temple. By 1982, rumblings of discontent and even outright secessionism were breaking out all over India. Indira Gandhi, prime minister of India in the early 1980s, feared the growing power of the charismatic Sikh preacher and militant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. Operation Blue Star was an Indian military action carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Indira Gandhi to remove the Sikh Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers from the holy Golden temple of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Punjab. He was a politician and journalist. Indira Gandhi becomes Indian prime minister Following the death of Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi becomes head of the Congress Party and thus prime minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his wife Kamala, serving as his personal secretary during his time in office. Because the Indian government was slow to respond to the pogrom, support for the Sikh separatist Khalistan movement increased markedly in the months following the massacre. Indira Gandhi was the third prime minister of India following decolonization and served from 1966 until 1977 and again as prime minister from 1980 to 1984. As prime minister, Indira made some popular moves. India became a Nuclear Power. Smt. He set up organisations and founded schools in the district to bridge the gap between education and work and a year after Gandhi’s arrival, the exploitative tinkhatia system was abolished. Born in kanpur in 1946 in a business family, Nath went to the famous Doon School which later brought him proximity to the Gandhi family. Indira's mother suffered from heat-stroke, so a young student named Feroz Gandhi rushed to her aid. In a key miscalculation, Indira Gandhi called new elections in March 1977. This dynastic succession is one of the negative aspects of her legacy - to this day, the Congress Party is so thoroughly identified with the Nehru/Gandhi family that it cannot avoid charges of nepotism. Indira grew up as an only child. The East Pakistani/Indian forces won the war, resulting in the formation of the nation of Bangladesh from what had been East Pakistan. Both men then calmly dropped their weapons and surrendered. Indira Gandhi rode to power in the 1971 Lok Sabha elections on the plank of a pro-poor development agenda. It was dividing into two separate factions; Indira Gandhi led the left-wing socialist faction. She was succeeded in the office of Prime Minister by her surviving son, Rajiv Gandhi. Those who claim that Indira Gandhi’s name was not even discussed for the next Prime Minister candidature after Nehru should read the ‘New York Times’ report in which on January 9 1964, just 5 months before Nehru’s death, Indira Gandhi was mentioned as a possible successor to Nehru. During this period, Sikh extremists were waging a campaign of terror against Hindus and moderate Sikhs in Punjab. Gandhi recorded the grievances of around 8,000 indigo cultivators, realising that illiteracy made it easy for Britishers and landlords to exploit farmers. But the nationwide unrest that followed and the formal notice of adjournment of her sentence this evening, the release became inevitable. In the following years, Indira and Feroze grew closer to each other while in England. November 1917 als Indira Priyadarshini Nehru in Allahabad; 31. 1972. To the rural and urban poor, untouchables, minorities and women in India, Gandhi was "Indira Amma or Mother Indira." She authorized the development of a nuclear weapons program in response to China's successful test at Lop Nur in 1967. Her slogan of Garibi Hatao had clicked with the masses and was instrumental to her increasing popularity. To control population growth, she instituted a policy of forced sterilization, under which impoverished men were subjected to involuntary vasectomies (often under appallingly unsanitary conditions). She was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. Her father was Jawaharlal Nehru, who would go on to become the first prime minister of India following its independence from Britain; her mother, Kamala Nehru, was just 18 years old when the baby arrived. Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) served as India’s first female prime minister from 1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 until her assassination in October … By 1980, the people of India had had enough of the ineffectual Janata Party. In Andhra Pradesh, on the central east coast, the Telangana region (comprising the inland 40%) wanted to break away from the rest of the state. 'Temperamentally, they are quite alike.' After her marriage, her name became Indira Gandhi. They married in March 1942 according to Hindu rituals. In keeping with her socialist principles, Indira abolished the maharajas of India's various states, doing away with their privileges as well as their titles. In 1972, Indira Gandhi's party swept to victory in national parliamentary elections based on the defeat of Pakistan and the slogan of Garibi Hatao, or "Eradicate Poverty." Mitrokhin reveals that Indira Gandhi was given 20 million rupees in exchange for crucial information, and to the surprise of Soviet chiefs, didn’t even return the bag in which she received the money. Her maiden name was Indira Priyadarshini. Sanjay Gandhi (1946–1980), second son of Indira. In the last two years, Indira Gandhi’s political career had been in limbo. The Nehru family was very active in the anti-imperial politics of the time; Indira's father was a leader of the nationalist movement and a close associate of Mohandas Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India in January 1966 Other estimates from hospital workers and eyewitnesses state that more than 2,000 civilians died in the bloodbath. Feroz died in Delhi in 1960 after suffering a second heart attack. Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917. Indira's father also died in 1964 and was succeeded as prime minister by Lal Bahadur Shastri. In her childhood, she founded the ‘Bal Charkha Sangh’ and in 1930, the ‘Vanar Sena’ of children to help the Congress party during the Non-Cooperation Movement. They had completely underestimated Nehru's daughter. Indira Gandhi was the third prime minister of India following decolonization and served from 1966 until 1977 and again as prime minister from 1980 to 1984. The most serious threat, though, came from Sikh secessionists in Punjab, led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. When news of the Prime Minister's death was broadcast, mobs of Hindus across northern India went on a rampage. In order to counterbalance Pakistan's friendship with the United States, and also perhaps due to mutual personal antipathy with US President Richard Nixon, she forged a closer relationship with the Soviet Union. He would become a close friend of Kamala's, escorting and attending her during her treatment for tuberculosis, first in India and later in Switzerland. What is the relation of Indira Gandhi and Mahatma... Why did the Sikh bodyguards kill Indira Gandhi? Feroze Gandhi, no relation to Mahatma Gandhi, was an Indian politician and journalist and he and Indira had two sons together. Indira Gandhi. In some areas, there were actual battles between those resigning and those still loyal to the army. She purged the national and state governments of her political opponents, arresting and jailing political activists. However, the Janata Party was struggling. Indira-Rajiv Gandhi’s ‘hatchet man’ But 2005 was not the first time that Buta Singh had courted a controversy in going out of his way to try to please the Gandhi family. Indira took power again for her fourth term as prime minister. In 1971, in response to a flood of refugees from East Pakistan, Indira began a war against Pakistan. (1889–1964) Person Remembering Indira Gandhi on her 103rd birth anniversary Photogallery. Braj Kumar Nehru (1909–2001), son of Brijlal Nehru. She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. Remembering Indira Gandhi on her 103rd birth anniversary Photogallery. As she passed two of her Sikh bodyguards, they drew their service weapons and opened fire. Her grandfather, Motilal Nehru was an activist of Indian Independence Movement. He was also one of the most trusted lieutenants of his mother during the 1970s and was widely expected to succeed his mother as Prime Minister of India. Indira also spent time in Switzerland, where her mother died of TB in February of 1936. All rights reserved. She was born on 19th of November, 1917 in Allahabad. Bhindranwale and his following of heavily armed militants holed up in the Akhal Takt, the second-most holy building after the Golden Temple itself. Indira went to Britain in 1937, where she enrolled at Somerville College, Oxford, but never completed her degree. And hence Indira became Indira Gandhi. Source: Pinterest The acquaintance with Mahatma […] Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. While there, she began to spend more time with Feroz Gandhi, then a London School of Economics student. Being influenced and inspired by her parents, Indira Gandhi rose to power in India and eventually became prime minister. The failure of the mission of Sir Stafford Cripps, a British cabinet minister who went to India in March 1942 with an offer that Gandhi found unacceptable, the British equivocation on the transfer of power to Indian hands, and the encouragement given by high British officials to conservative and communal forces promoting discord between Muslims and Hindus impelled Gandhi to demand in the summer of 1942 … In 1955, she became a member of the Congress Party's working committee; within four years, she would be president of that body. Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture. Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) changed the status quo Socialism and secularism became the hall mark of the Indira Gandhi era, even milestones of the Constitution but were resisted by the old order both within the Congress party and beyond Her road to power and politics started when … Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad (in modern-day Uttar Pradesh), British India. She was appointed as in-charge of the Information and Broadcasting Ministry under Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri. Services, Indira Gandhi: Biography, Facts, & Achievements, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. … From their position in the Akhal Takt building, Bhindranwale and his followers called for armed resistance to Hindu domination. In the early morning hours of June 5, they launched the attack. Her opponent, Raj Narain of the Socialist Party, charged her with corruption and electoral malpractice. Where did Indira Gandhi go to high school? After his stint as a professor at the Harvard University, Swamy returned to India and began teaching in IIT-Delhi. What did Indira Gandhi do for women's rights? Her father was Jawaharlal Nehru, who would go on to become the first prime minister of India following its independence from Britain; her mother, Kamala Nehru, was just 18 years old when the baby arrived. She dedicated her life to progress in her country despite the overwhelming problems and challenges she encountered. Tensions in the region had grown so high that by June of 1984, Indira Gandhi decided to take action. Indira Gandhi took this forward by leaps and bounds. The violence was particularly bad in Haryana state. On the other hand, Indira clearly loved her country and did leave it in a stronger position relative to neighboring countries. Interestingly, due to the heavy Sikh presence in the Indian Army, the commander of the attack force, Major General Kuldip Singh Brar, and many of the troops were also Sikhs. The Punjabis lost their first capital at Lahore to Pakistan in 1947; the newly-built capital at Chandigarh ended up in Haryana two decades later, and the government in Delhi decreed that Haryana and Punjab would simply have to share the city. Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad (in modern-day Uttar Pradesh), British India. Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi’s father, was a leader of India’s nationalist movement and became India’s first prime minister after its independence. J.D., University of Washington School of Law, B.A., History, Western Washington University. - Biography & Rule, CSET Social Science Subtest I (114): Practice & Study Guide, ILTS Science - Environmental Science (112): Test Practice and Study Guide, TExES Mathematics 7-12 (235): Practice & Study Guide, Praxis Spanish Exam (5195): Practice & Study Guide, Ohio Assessments for Educators - Chemistry (009): Practice & Study Guide, GACE Reading (617): Practice & Study Guide, Ohio Assessments for Educators - Early Childhood Education (012): Practice & Study Guide, GACE Program Admission Assessment Test I Reading (210): Practice & Study Guide, GACE Health & Physical Education (615): Practice & Study Guide, Ohio Assessments for Educators - Middle Grades Science (029): Practice & Study Guide, GACE Early Childhood Education (501): Practice & Study Guide, GACE Middle Grades Language Arts (011): Practice & Study Guide, GACE Program Admission Assessment Test II Mathematics (211): Practice & Study Guide, Ohio Assessments for Educators - Early Childhood (PK-3) APK (001): Practice & Study Guide, Ohio Assessments for Educators - Adolescence to Young Adult (7-12) APK (003): Practice & Study Guide, PLACE Marketing Education: Practice & Study Guide, MTTC Reading Specialist (092): Practice & Study Guide, NMTA School Counselor (501): Practice & Study Guide, TExES Core Subjects EC-6 (291): Practice & Study Guide, MTLE Early Childhood Education: Practice & Study Guide, Biological and Biomedical Feroz and Indira Gandhi had two sons, Rajiv, born in 1944, and Sanjay, born in 1946. Indira Nehru Gandhi was a complex woman whose leadership in India continues to have repercussions to this day. According to official Indian government numbers, 492 civilians were killed, including women and children, along with 83 Indian army personnel. Re-election, Trial, and the State of Emergency, Jawaharlal Nehru, India's First Prime Minister, Biography of Mohandas Gandhi, Indian Independence Leader. The leader himself was not necessarily calling for the creation of Khalistan; rather he demanded the implementation of the Anandpur Resolution, which called for the unification and purification of the Sikh community within Punjab. They reelected Indira Gandhi's Congress Party under the slogan of "stability." Indira Priyadarshini Nehru (later Indira Gandhi) (1917–1984), only daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru. In 1983, the Sikh leader Bhindranwale and his armed followers occupied and fortified the second-most holy building in the sacred Golden Temple complex (also called the Harmandir Sahib or Darbar Sahib) in Amritsar, the Indian Punjab. Politicians on both sides of a deepening divide within the Congress Party hoped to be able to control her. Indira Gandhi's son married Sonia Gandhi so she is Indira's daughter-in-law. She ordered the attack at the beginning of June 1984, even though June 3rd was the most important Sikh holiday (honoring the martyrdom of the Golden Temple's founder), and the complex was full of innocent pilgrims. Her association with politics started from her childhood. Her years as Prime Minister are peppered with path-breaking initiatives in the realm of … Feroze Gandhi (1912–1960), husband of Indira. Gandhi inherited a weak and troubled economy. Who was Jawaharlal Nehru? What is the aggregate demand of IGNOU for MA in... Where is Indira Gandhi National Flying academy? In the Anti-Sikh Riots, which lasted for four days, anywhere from 3,000 to 20,000 Sikhs were murdered, many of them burned alive. Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad (in modern-day Uttar Pradesh), British India. Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: इदर परयदरशन गध Indirā Priyadarśinī Gāndhī; * 19. In the aftermath of Operation Bluestar, a number of Sikh soldiers resigned from the Indian Army. Indira Gandhi also instilled authoritarianism into India's political processes, warping the democracy to suit her need for power. Sie starb durch ein Attentat. Oktober 1984 in Neu-Delhi) war eine indische Politikerin, die von 1966 bis 1977 und erneut von 1980 bis 1984 als Premierministerin Indiens amtierte. In preparation for the attack, all electricity and lines of communication to Punjab were cut off. Gandhi Jayanti DNA Exclusive: Biggest surname deception exposed on Gandhi Jayanti; check how 'Ghandy' became 'Gandhi' The Gandhi surname in India is used by around 1.56 lakh people, but merely one family has taken the advantage of it. Shastri appointed Indira Gandhi his minister of information and broadcasting; in addition, she was a member of the upper house of parliament, the Rajya Sabha. At what Age did Indira Gandhi join the Indian National Congress? Green Revolution and the Fourth Five-Year Plan. Beant Singh shot her three times with a pistol, while Satwant Singh fired thirty times with a self-loading rifle. They were awaiting a small Soviet aircraft bringing in the dead body of India’s second Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri. What Are the Origins of the Kashmir Conflict? Indira Gandhi was actively involved in the freedom struggle. During her first term, she even showed signs of inexperience and nervousness, Ram Manohar Lohiya, an MP from Uttar Pradesh called her a ‘Mute Doll’ due to her inability to speak in Lok Sabha. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Indira adopted surname of her husband, Feroz Ghandy. Indira’s father was Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of an independent India. She may have begun to believe her own propaganda, convincing herself that the people of India loved her and approved of her actions during the years-long state of emergency. Feroz Gandhi had a heart attack in 1958, while Indira and Nehru were in Bhutan on an official state visit. Under her stewardship, traditionally famine-prone India became a Green Revolution success story, actually exporting a surplus of wheat, rice and other crops by the early 1970s. (India would test its own bomb in 1974.) How Ahmed Patel became close to Sonia Gandhi. In March 1930, Kamala and Indira were marching in protest outside of the Ewing Christian College. However, Indira Gandhi refused to step down from the prime ministership, despite wide-spread unrest following the verdict. Indira Gandhi was the only daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, our first Prime Minister. Answer: 48 Years Explanation: She was Born on 19 November 1917 and became the Prime Minister of India on 24 Jan 1966. Beant Singh was shot dead while under arrest; Satwant Singh and alleged conspirator Kehar Singh were later hanged. Indira Gandhi with her parents. An Akali Dal leader-turned-Congressman, he had lost his political constituency in his home state of Punjab after he supported Operation Blue Star, which forced him to shift his political base to Rajasthan. The 1967 election cycle was grim for the party - it lost almost 60 seats in the lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha. India's Iron Lady left behind a complicated legacy. 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